Something About Coffee Plant

Something About Coffee Plant

When you drink a delicious latte or hand-brew coffee, it's hard to imagine that this is the product of a plant and that the fruits produced by the world's countless coffee trees supply our source of vitality.

What does a coffee plant look like? What kinds are there? And how does the difference between the flower and the fruit of the coffee plant affect our daily cup of coffee?

A Brief History Of Coffee

When it comes to coffee, what country do you think of first? Columbia? Brazil? Or Indonesia? At that time coffee originally originated in Ethiopia.

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Over the centuries, coffee has spread from Africa and the Middle East to various parts of the world. There are many versions of the story, but the most widely known is that Europeans brought coffee from Yemen to colonists. It seems undeniable that the spread of coffee around the world has nothing to do with it.

Moving time to modern times, coffee has become an indispensable economic crop for many countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. Even in countries that do not grow coffee themselves, the economy is driven by the roasting and consumption of coffee.

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What Does The Coffee Tree Look Like?

Coffee beans, although called beans, are the seeds of the coffee fruit, usually with two seeds in one fruit.

The coffee plant can be classified as a tree because it can grow up to a height of nine meters, but if applied on a farm, the coffee tree must be shorter and better harvested at a manpower-accessible height, so the coffee park often looks more like a bush.

Branches And Leaves

Horizontal branches of Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III can be seen from the main stem of the coffee tree, followed by dark green and wax-faced leaves growing in pairs.

The leaves are the foundation of the plant because that is where photosynthesis occurs. In other words, no leaf means no energy. Without energy, plants can never grow into delicious fruits containing coffee beans.

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Coffee blossom

When the coffee tree grows for about three to four years, the first flower blooms. Small, delicate white flowers grow at the junction of leaves and branches, releasing a sweet aroma.

The flower is where the reproductive system of the plant resides. In other words, the leaves and flowers contribute to the maintenance and reproduction of coffee plants.

The Fruit

Cherry-like fruits appear where the flowers are located for six to eight weeks after pollination. Immature cherries are green; Fruit that turns red, yellow, orange, or even pink over time, depending on the variety. As the fruit ripens, they become sweeter.

And the amount of caffeine in the fruit actually serves as a deterrent to most predators. Unfortunately, it also attracts one of the worst pests in coffee: the coffee silkworm, which survives in a caffeine environment.

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There are many layers of matter in the fruit. The outer peel and the flesh are the outermost layers of the fruit, and then we have a mesocarp, which is where the mucus is called the pectin layer. And in the pectin layer, is the seed of the fruit coffee beans!

The Seed

In each fruit, you will find two seeds unless it is a round bean or otherwise defective. Round beans are seeds that ripen with only one larger, rounder seed instead of two, which occurs on about 5% of seeds.

These seeds are coffee beans. After a lot of processing to remove peel and mucus, dry, bake, grind and finally turn into our favorite drink.

Coffee Plants Of Different Species

There are more than a hundred different varieties of coffee, each of which can be further divided into varieties. These can have an impact on coffee taste, caffeine content, and how coffee grows.

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Two Main Species: Arabica & Robusta

Arabica is the most widely consumed species, accounting for about 70% of the world's total, and has a better quality and aroma. Valentina Pedrotti, a Panamanian ICCB biologist, and coffee value chain analyst said: In the boutique coffee market, you will only look at Arabica.

The Differences Between Arabica And Robusta Are As Follows:

  • More sensitive to climate change
  • More susceptible to pest effects
  • Growth in lower temperatures (usually linked to higher altitudes and shade)
  • Fruit yield is generally less
  • Lower levels of caffeine
  • Sweet taste, high flavor complexity, more aroma

Robusta or Chinese fruit coffee is a more resilient species, accounting for about 30% of coffee production.

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The Difference Between Robusta And Arabica Is As Follows:

  • Higher pest resistance
  • Higher levels of caffeine
  • Growing in warmer environments
  • Higher yields allow for more fruit and therefore more seeds. However, this also means that a single fruit cannot get enough nutrients from a tree, so coffee is usually of lower quality
  • The taste is usually bitter

Hundreds Of Coffee Varieties

Unlike the varieties mentioned above, we often drink several different varieties of coffee. If you buy a boutique coffee, you may see in your bag what kind of coffee you drink.

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The most common varieties include Tiebika, Bourbon, Kadura, etc. And now the best-known Ganxia (geisha), a coffee known for its floral flavor and aroma, with a tea-like palate that sells for $803 a pound.

The coffee industry sometimes mixes varieties that are mated to industry or market needs, including factors such as disease resistance, higher yields, and better flavors.

The Life Cycle Of Coffee Trees

Coffee plants can have a life cycle of up to 80 years. But on commercial farms, it can take 20 to 30 years, depending on how they take care of the coffee plants.

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In the first few years of coffee tree growth, the coffee tree will not be fruitful, and then the coffee will not be fruitful until three or four years later, after which more fruit will be produced.

Coffee trees have a similar life cycle, and as they grow, you'll see their distinctive branches and bright green leaves. Most producers keep young coffee trees in a greenhouse until the seedlings are ready to be planted on a coffee farm.

Once the coffee tree is ripe, it will flower, which usually happens within a short period of time after a heavy rain. And they produce fruit soon after flowering. Coffee plants in some countries, such as Colombia, usually bloom twice a year, meaning there are two harvests a year.

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Producers and farm employees need to know how to recognize that coffee has entered a period of near harvest.

Coffee trees are beautiful plants with red fruit and white flowers in appearance. They may be a stout, low-altitude variety, or an exquisite, but well-flavored, high-altitude variety, seedlings or old trees full of ripe fruits or coffee trees with only dark green leaves. In either form, it comes from this tree, we can enjoy our favorite coffee every day, and there are countless people around the world who live on it.

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